|Signs and symptoms|
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that can affect any organ. Common symptoms are vague, such as fatigue unchanged by sleep, lack of energy, aches and pains, arthralgia, dry eyes, blurry vision, shortness of breath, a dry hacking cough or skin lesions. The cutaneous symptoms are protean, and range from rashes and noduli (small bumps) to erythema nodosum or lupus pernio.
The combination of erythema nodosum, bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and arthralgia is called Lofgren syndrome. This syndrome has a relatively good prognosis.
Renal, liver, heart or brain involvement may cause further symptoms and altered functioning. Manifestations in the eye include uveitis and retinal inflammation, which may result in loss of visual acuity or blindness. Sarcoidosis affecting the brain or nerves is known as neurosarcoidosis.
The combination of anterior uveitis, parotitis and fever is called Heerfordt-Waldenstrom syndrome. (D86.8)
Hypercalcemia (high calcium levels) and its symptoms may be the result of excessive vitamin D production.
Sarcoidosis most often manifests as a restrictive disease of the lungs, causing a decrease in lung volume and decreased compliance (the ability to stretch). The disease typically limits the amount of air drawn into the lungs, but produces higher than normal expiratory flow ratios. The vital capacity (full breath in, to full breath out) is decreased, and most of this air can be blown out in the first second. This means the FEV1/FVC ratio is increased from the normal of about 80%, to 90%. Obstructive lung changes, causing a decrease in the amount of air that can be exhaled, may occur when enlarged lymph nodes in the chest externally compress airways or when internal inflammation or nodules impede airflow.